Employment Law Glossary - N to Z

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National Minimum Wage - The minimum amount of pay for workers in certain age groups.

Negligence - Carelessness of an individual which amounts to a breach of duty.

Notice - The amount of notice given to terminate a contract.

Notice of appearance - Former term for an ET3.



Order - A legal instruction issued by an Employment Tribunal.

Originating application - Former term for an ET1.



Party - A Claimant or Respondent.

PILON - Abbreviation for "pay in lieu of notice" which is commonly paid to reflect an early conclusion of employment.

Pleadings - Former term for statement of case or fact.

Postponement - Adjourning a hearing to a later date.

Precedent - An authority that has established a legal principle to be followed in future cases.

Pre-hearing review - A hearing that takes place before a main hearing to decide preliminary matters.

Prejudice - Disadvantage, where one party is likely to be favoured more than the other party.

Prima facie - Latin for "at first sight" referring evidence sufficient to establish that there is a case to answer.

Pro-bono - Where those acting commonly a solicitor but also experts such as doctor and other professional act without charging a fee. 

Productions - Documents produced for reference or evidence at a hearing.

Protected act - An act by an employee, or a worker where there is statutory protection from dismissal or protection from suffering a detriment.

Protected disclosure - A disclosure made by an employee in good faith, for which the employee cannot be dismissed or subjected to a detriment.

Protective award - An award of up to 90 days pay for each employee where an employer fails to consult over redundancy, provided there are 20 or more employees in any one establishment who may be made redundant.



QB - Queen's Bench (Law reports)

QBD - Queen's Bench Division (Law reports)

QC - Queen's Counsel

Qualifying period of employment - Period in which an employee qualifies for certain employment rights, for example; after one month's service an employee will qualify for entitlement to notice, and after one year unfair dismissal etc.

Quantum - Latin for "how much"? for example; how much a claim is worth.



Reg - Regulation

Re-engagement - An Employment Tribunal can order an employer to reinstate an employee who has been unfairly dismissed in the employee's former job, or an alternative job, and award compensation for loss of wages.

Re-examination - Process of asking a witness further questions after cross-examination.

Redundancy - Dismissal due to the availability of work either ceasing or diminishing.

Redundancy payment - Statutory payment to an employee who has more than 2 years continuous service in the event of a redundancy. 

Reinstatement - An Employment Tribunal may (rarely) order an employer to reinstate an employee who has been unfairly dismissed in the employee's former job, and award compensation for loss of wages.

Remedy - What an employee is awarded if a claim is successful. This can be either compensation, re-engagement or reinstatement. 

Repudiation - A fundamental breach of contract.

Reserved judgement - A judgement that is reserved until a later date.

Respondent - The party an employee brings an Employment Tribunal claim against.

Restrictive covenant - A clause in a contract that restricts what a party to the contract can do after the contract has been terminated. 

Review hearing - A hearing in which an Employment Tribunal can review a judgement, and can revoke or vary it.



Sec - Section

SI - Statutory Instrument

Statement of case or fact - A statement which forms the basis of a claim, or a response to an Employment Tribunal.

Statute - An Act of parliament.

Statutory - Instrument Delegated or secondary legislation, similar to an Act of parliament.

Statutory notice - The period of notice which must be given either by an employer, or an employee to terminate a contract.

Submission - Legal argument in support of either party to a claim.

Substantive - Relating to the substance of a claim, rather than to procedural or interlocutory matters.

Summary dismissal - Immediate dismissal, usually on grounds of gross misconduct without pay in lieu of notice.



Tax - Taxation

Time limit  - The period of time in which an Employment Tribunal claim must be submitted. This is normally three calendar months, less one day. If a claim is not received within this time, it will normally be time barred.



Unfair dismissal - A dismissal where there is not a sufficiently fair reason to dismiss or which is "automatically" unfair.

Unlawful deduction of wages - A deduction which is not expressly authorised or agreed by an employee in writing before the deduction is made.
Unlawful discrimination - An adverse decision made against a person for reasons related to age, disability, gender reassignment, race, colour, nationality, ethnic or national origins, religion or belief, sex or marital status, gender etc., or sexual orientation.



Vat - Value added tax

Variation - An agreed or a unilateral variation to a contract.

Vicarious liability - Legal principle where an employer is held liable for the action of an employee whilst at work.

Victimisation - Detriment (including dismissal) against someone who is attempting to enforce a right not to suffer discrimination. This can be either against the person who is trying to enforce the right, or anyone who is supporting this person, for example; a witness.



WLR - Weekly Law Reports

Week's pay - The amount of pay used to calculate a basic award or redundancy pay which is subject to a statutory upper limit.

Without prejudice - Phrase used to indicate that a letter or conversation is confidential and which generally cannot be disclosed to a Court or an Employment Tribunal.

Witness order - An Employment Tribunal order compelling a witness to attend a hearing.

Witness statement - Evidence provided by a witness which can be read at a hearing. This does not apply in Scotland where evidence is more commonly given verbally.

Work permit - Permit to allow an individual to work in the UK.

Written statement of employment particulars - A statement of employment particulars which must be provided within two months of starting employment.

Wrongful dismissal - A dismissal without any reason, notice or pay in lieu of notice.


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